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3.1 GLC ranges of fatty acid composition (expressed as percentages of total fatty acids)

Sample of fish oils described in sections 2.1 and 2.3 shall fall within the appropriate ranges specified in Table

1. Supplementary criteria, for example national geographical and/or climatic variations may be considered, as necessary, to confirm that a sample is in compliance with the Standard.

3.2 Other essential compositional criteria

For oil from Engraulis ringens (2.1.1) the sum of EPA and DHA has to be at least 27 % (expressed as percentage of total fatty acids).

For krill oils (2.1.3) the content of phospholipids shall be at least 30 w/w %.

Concentrated fish oils (2.5.1) and highly concentrated fish oils (2.5.2) shall contain at least 50 w/w % of fatty acids as sum of EPA and DHA in the form of triglycerides and/or phospholipids.

3.3 Quality parameters

Note: this section does not apply to flavoured fish oils where the added flavourings may interfere with the analytical determination of oxidation parameters.

3.3.1  Fish oils, fish liver oils, concentrated fish oils, and concentrated fish oils ethyl esters (Section 2.1. to 2.6) with the exception of oils dealt with in Section

           Acid value                 ≤ 3 mg KOH/g

                                                               Peroxide value          ≤ 5 milliequivalent of active oxygen/kg oil

Anisidine value          ≤ 20

                              Total oxidation value (ToTox)2                ≤ 26

3.3.2 Fish oils with a high phospholipid concentration of 30% or more such as krill oil (Section 2.1.3) shall comply with the following:

Acid value ≤ 45 mg KOH/g

                                                      Peroxide value ≤ 5 milliequivalent of active oxygen/kg oil

3.4 Vitamins

Fish liver oils except of deep sea shark liver oil (Sections 2.3 and 2.4) shall comply with following:

                                               Vitamin A ≥ 40 µg of retinol equivalents/ml of oil

Vitamin D ≥ 1.0 µg/ml

Losses during processing may be restored (see Section 2.4. of CXG 9-1987) by the addition of: Vitamin A and its esters

Vitamin D

Maximum levels for vitamins A and D should be in accordance with the needs of each individual country including, where appropriate, the prohibition of the use of particular vitamins.​


2 Total oxidation value (ToTox) = 2 x Peroxide value + 1 x Anisidine value
Explanatory note: Oxidation of fish oils is a sequential process: following an initial raise of peroxide value, the anisidine value rises. The peroxide value is therefore a parameter for primary oxidation products, the anisidine value for secondary oxidation products. The parameter ToTox, which means "total oxidation of oil", was established to avoid that both of these oxidation products are present at maximum levels. The maximum allowed ToTox value is set separately and lower than the sum of the individual possible maximum limits set for peroxide and anisidine values.

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