Fish oils means oils intended for human consumption derived from the raw material as defined in Section 2 of the Code of Practice for Fish and Fishery Products (CXC 52-2003). Processes to obtain fish oil for human consumption may involve, but are not limited to, extraction of crude oil from raw material and refining of that crude oil. Fish oils and concentrated fish oils are primarily composed of glycerides of fatty acids whereas concentrated fish oils ethyl esters are primarily composed of fatty acids ethyl esters. Fish oils may contain other lipids and unsaponifiable constituents naturally present.
Crude fish oils and crude fish liver oils are oils intended for human consumption after they have undergone further processing, e.g. refining and purification and have to comply with Section 3.1, as applicable, as well as with Sections 4, 6.1 and 7. Fish oils intended for direct human consumption shall comply with all sections of this Standard.
The refined fish oil production process typically includes several steps such as repeated heating at high temperatures as well as alkali/ acid treatments and repeated removal of the water phase. Fish oils may also be subjected to processing steps (e.g. solvent extraction, saponification, re-esterification, trans-esterification).
2.1 Named fish oils are derived from specific raw materials which are characteristic of the major fish or shellfish taxon from which the oil is extracted.
2.1.1 Anchovy oil is derived from Engraulis ringens and other species of the genus Engraulis (Engraulidae).
2.1.2 Tuna oil is derived from the species of the genus Thunnus and from the species Katsuwonus pelamis
2.1.3 Krill oil is derived from Euphausia superba. The major components are triglycerides and phospholipids.
2.1.4 Menhaden oil is derived from the genera Brevootia and Ethmidium (Clupeidae).
2.1.5 Salmon oil is derived from the family Salmonidae.
2.2 Fish oils (unnamed) are derived from one or more species of fish or shellfish. This includes also mixtures with fish liver oils.
2.3 Named fish liver oils are derived from the livers of fish and are composed of fatty acids, vitamins or other components that are representative of the livers from the species from which the oil is extracted.
2.3.1 Cod liver oil is derived from the liver of wild cod, Gadus morhua L and other species of Gadidae.
2.4 Fish liver oil (unnamed) are derived from the livers of one or more species of fish.
2.5 Concentrated fish oils are derived from fish oils described in Sections 2.1 to 2.4 which have been subjected to processes that may involve, but are not limited to, hydrolysis, fractionation, winterization and/or re- esterification to increase the concentration of specific fatty acids.
2.5.1 Concentrated fish oil contains 35 to 50 w/w % fatty acids as sum of C20:5 (n-3) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and C22:6 (n-3) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).
2.5.2 Highly concentrated fish oil contains more than 50 w/w % fatty acids as sum of EPA and DHA.
2.6 Concentrated fish oils ethyl esters are derived from fish oils described in Section 2.1 to 2.4 and are primarily composed of fatty acids ethyl esters.
2.6.1 Concentrated fish oil ethyl esters contain fatty acids as esters of ethanol of which 40 to 60 w/w % are as sum of EPA and DHA.
2.6.2 Highly concentrated fish oil ethyl esters contain fatty acids as esters of ethanol of which more than 60 w/w % are as sum of EPA and DHA.
1 Fish: Any of the cold-blooded (ecothermic) aquatic vertebrates. Amphibians and aquatic reptiles are not included. Shellfish:
Those species of aquatic molluscs and crustaceans that are commonly used for food.