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Chapter 2 Construction

Section 4: Pre-requisites of construction

8. At any time, no person shall initiate any related construction activity without holding a valid authorization or written approval by the NRRC.

9. The applicant shall ensure that the construction of a nuclear facility is not commenced before the construction license has been issued.

10. Manufacturing of components or structures with a long lead time and site preparation activities may be started before the construction license is issued, subject to the NRRC approval.

11. The conceptual design of the systems important to safety of the nuclear facility, described in the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report for the construction license application, shall be completed, verified by safety analyses and reviewed by the applicant and the NRRC, before the construction starts.

12. Tests and analyses needed to verify exceptional methods of construction or novel design features of the facility shall be completed before the construction starts. All necessary engineering documents to start the construction activities shall be made available to the NRRC.

13. The applicant shall establish and implement a management system for the construction stage before applying for a construction license.

14. The licensee shall establish adequate infrastructure for the on-site construction activities, such as transport arrangements for large components, support systems including electricity, gas and water supply and accommodation of the workforce.

Section 5: Responsibilities of the licensee and suppliers during construction

15. The licensee retains the prime responsibility for safety throughout the lifetime of the facilities and activities, and this responsibility cannot be delegated.

16. The licensee shall specify for its vendor of the facility, contractors and suppliers the safety and quality requirements for the construction of a nuclear facility as prescribed by the NRRC.

17. The licensee shall ensure that the construction activities are conducted in accordance with the NRRC requirements, and shall be able to demonstrate such compliance.

18. The licensee is responsible for the activities of contractors, suppliers and subcontractors whose activities might affect the safety of the facility, and for supervising these activities.

19. The licensee is responsible for establishing and implementing a management system for the construction of a nuclear facility, giving due priority to safety. Responsibilities of the organizations participating in construction activities shall be clearly defined in the management system.

20. The vendor of the facility, contractors and suppliers are responsible for fulfilling the safety and quality requirements specified for the construction, including the work of their subcontractors.

21. The licensee and the vendor of the facility, contractors and suppliers whose activities might affect the safety of the facility shall have the needed competence, experience and resources within their organizations to ensure that the facility is constructed in accordance with specified safety and quality requirements and to ensure proper control of supply chains.

Section 6: Management of construction activities

22. The licensee shall have in place a management system for implementing the management of construction activities. This management system shall be appropriately certified or independently evaluated.

23. The licensee shall ensure that processes and procedures required to manage, control and implement a construction project of a nuclear facility are defined and described in the licensee's management system for construction. These processes shall take account of internal and external hazards and risks related to the implementation of construction activities according to plans, and relevant experience gained in the construction of other similar facilities.

24. As a part of the management system for construction, the licensee shall specify the interfaces and establish clear lines of communication between various organizations participating in the design, construction, commissioning and operation of the facility.

25. During the construction, the licensee shall monitor and maintain the facility, to protect the plant equipment and to maintain consistency with the Safety Analysis Report.

26. To enhance the reliability of construction activities, they shall be carefully planned, scheduled. and carried out by competent staff with high quality and in accordance with approved procedures. The overall construction schedule should include, at least, the activities to be performed, the organizations responsible for implementing various activities, the planned sequential order and duration of the activities and the resources needed for each activity. 

27. The licensee shall ensure that arrangements for work control, modification control and configuration control are established during construction at adequate time.

28. Independent safety reviews or verifications of construction activities shall be carried out for defined activities, as necessary, and its hold points shall be specified by the licensee. The NRRC may define additional hold points.

29. As a part of the management system, the licensee shall establish provisions to ensure compliance with regulatory requirements, for ensuring safety and quality of the construction. The regulatory requirements and licensee's requirements shall be brought together into procurement specifications.

30. The licensee shall specify a formal procedure for design modifications implemented during construction, which shall be reviewed, and their impact independently assessed by a designated entity of the licensee organization responsible for the design.

31. The licensee shall establish a configuration management process to control design modifications during construction. Safety related design modifications during the construction stage shall be approved by the NRRC.

32. The licensee is fully liable for any safety implication activities, and shall perform an independent design review for the quality plans of specified structures and components important to safety by an independent technical service organizations that are recognized by the NRRC.

33. The licensee shall perform a design review of other structures and components. The scope of the design reviews and the procedures to carry out the reviews by the licensee or technical service organizations, shall be approved by the NRRC.

34. The licensee shall ensure that contractors, suppliers and subcontractors involved in construction activities are informed of the safety and quality requirements for their services and products and of the documentation and reporting requirements, and that they have in place and implement quality plans for their products for the verification of the quality of items important to safety.

35. The licensee shall specify the inspections to be performed during manufacturing and installation by a technical services organization. The contractors, suppliers and subcontractors shall be informed of these inspections.

36. Contractors and suppliers shall not commence their work before being authorized by the licensee.

37. All items important to safety shall be inspected and tested by the manufacturer in accordance with the requirements established in the procurement specifications.

38. After items important to safety have been received on site, an inspection shall be performed by the licensee to ensure that the specified requirements for the item are fulfilled and no damage has occurred during the transport to the site, prior to use of the items in construction. 

39. The licensee shall establish storages fulfilling the specified requirements on the site to protect items important to safety prior to their installation, and shall establish measures for monitoring and control of environmental conditions and for performing housekeeping during construction to preserve installed items.

40. The licensee shall ensure that baseline in-service inspections (pre-service inspections) by means of non-destructive examination methods are performed using a qualified inspection system.

41. The conceptual plan for in-service inspections shall be submitted to the NRRC for approval when applying for a construction license. The testing organization performing non-destructive inspections and other testing organizations shall be recognized by the NRRC.

42. After all the manufacturing and installation work for the item has been completed, the licensee shall perform an independent conformity assessment of specified structures and components important to safety by an independent technical service organizations that are recognized by the NRRC.

43. A conformity assessment of other structures and components shall be performed by the licensee to verify that the installed structure or component complies with the design and quality requirements. The scope of the assessment and procedures to carry out the assessment shall be approved by the NRRC.

44. The licensee shall oversee and assess the performance of the organizations responsible for construction activities, based on a graded approach.

45. The licensee is responsible for filing an inspection request to a technical services organization in respect of all items for which an inspection during manufacturing or installation is required, and for filing an inspection request in respect of all items for which a conformity assessment is required.

46. During the construction, the licensee shall use an effective system for collecting, analyzing and follow-up of non-conformances. Non-conformances shall be categorized based on their safety significance, and significant non-conformances shall be reported to the NRRC.

47. The licensee shall make it clear to all individuals engaged in construction activities that they are expected to report non-conformances.

48. The licensee shall investigate safety significant events during the construction, and report them immediately to the NRRC. and shall determine direct causes and root causes of the events and preventive and corrective action plans as a part of the investigation. The investigation report shall be approved by the NRRC.

Section 7: Culture for safety during construction

49. The licensee shall ensure that the NRRC requirements concerning culture for safety are implemented during the construction of a nuclear facility, as stipulated in the Regulation on Leadership and Management for Safety (NRRC-R-04).

50. The senior management of each organization participating in construction activities shall actively demonstrate commitment to safety in all their activities. Safety-oriented decision-making shall be applied in all construction activities.

51. The licensee shall ensure that individuals working in organizations participating in construction activities understand the essential features of the safety significance of their work.

52. Managers at all levels in organizations participating in construction activities shall encourage workers to report any potential safety concerns which shall be responded properly.

53. The licensee shall ensure that any unplanned actions are avoided in the construction activities. In unforeseen situations or if the situation is not fully understood, the work shall not be continued before an assessment of the situation is made.

54. The licensee shall ensure that in all organizations participating in construction activities procedures are in place for reporting deviations, non-conformances and safety concerns to the management of the organization or to the licensee. Procedures shall be established for reporting safety concerns to the NRRC.

55. The safety culture of the organizations participating in the construction of a nuclear facility shall be adequately monitored by the licensee, throughout the construction process.

Section 8: Transfer of responsibilities

56. The licensee shall ensure that procedures are established to control and coordinate the handover of the completed construction work from one contractor to another and from construction organization to commissioning organization. These procedures shall be a part of the management system for construction.

57. The procedures shall specify the necessary documentation for the transfer. The documentation shall be reviewed by both parties for completeness and accuracy. Any remaining non-conformances shall be assessed and remaining work identified, planned and scheduled.


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