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Chapter 11: Public Exposure

Section 61: Responsibilities for the Protection of the Members of the Public

180. The authorized person, in cooperation with suppliers and providers of consumer products shall apply the requirements of this regulation in relation to any public exposure delivered from a source for which they have responsibility.

181. The authorized person in cooperation with suppliers, in applying the principle of optimization of protection and safety in the design, planning, operation and decommissioning of a source shall take into account:

(a) Possible changes in any conditions that could affect the exposure of members of the pub-lic, such as changes in the characteristics and use of the source, changes in environmental dispersion conditions, changes in exposure pathways or changes in values of parameters used for the determination of the representative person;

(b) Good practice in the operation of similar sources or the conduct of similar practices;

(c) Possible buildup and accumulation in the environment of radioactive substances from discharges during the lifetime of the source;

(d) Uncertainties in the assessment of doses, especially uncertainties in contributions to dos-es if the source and the representative person are separated in space or in time.

182. The authorized person shall consider, in the safety assessment that supports the authorization process and when conducting any further safety evaluation, all aspects relevant for the public ex-posure, including those related to the siting of the facility from a radiation protection point of view. 

183. The authorized person shall establish, implement, maintain and adequately document within the radiation protection program the following matters:

(a) Policies, procedures and organizational arrangements for protection and safety related to public exposure, in accordance with the requirements of this regulation;

(b) Measures for ensuring:

(i) Optimization of protection and safety; 

(ii) Limitation of exposure of members of the public from such sources, so that the total exposure is not higher than the dose limits for members of the public as specified in Section 10;

(c) Provision for suitable and adequate resources (including facilities, equipment and ser-vices) for the protection and safety of members of the public, commensurate with the likelihood and magnitude of the exposures;

(d) Provision for controlling radioactive discharges and ensuring compliance with the dis-charge conditions established by the NRRC.

(e) Provision for appropriate implementation of the waste management requirements, in-cluding the application of the clearance levels.

(f) Programs for appropriate training of personnel having functions relevant to the protec-tion and safety of the public, as well as periodic retraining as required, to ensure the nec-essary level of competence;

(g) Provision for appropriate monitoring equipment, monitoring programs and methods for measuring and assessing public exposure and radioactive contamination of the environ-ment;

(h) Adequate records of monitoring programs.

Section 62: Control of Visitors

184. The authorized person shall:

(a) Apply the relevant requirements of this regulation in respect of public exposure for visi-tors to a controlled area or a supervised area;

(b) Ensure that visitors are accompanied in any controlled area by a person who knows the measures for protection and safety for the controlled area;

(c) Provide adequate information and instructions to visitors before they enter a controlled area or a supervised area so as to provide protection and safety for visitors and other in-dividuals who could be affected by their actions;

(d) Ensure that adequate control is maintained over the entry of visitors to a controlled area or a supervised area, including the use of signs for such areas;

(e) Ensure that appropriate records on relevant information concerning the control of visitors are implemented.

Section 63: External Exposure and Contamination in Areas Accessible to Members of the Public

185. In a situation when a source is deemed to give rise to external exposure of members of the pub-lic, the authorized person shall ensure that:

(a) The floor plans and arrangements of equipment for all new installations utilizing such sources, as well as all significant modifications to existing installations, are subject to re-view and approval by the NRRC prior to commissioning;

(b) Shielding and other measures for protection and safety, including access control, are pro-vided for restricting public exposure in particular at open sites.

186. The authorized person shall ensure that:

(a) Specific provisions for confinement are established for the design and operation of a source that could cause the spread of contamination in areas that are accessible to mem-bers of the public;

(b) Measures for protection and safety are implemented for restricting public exposure due to contamination in areas within a facility that are accessible to members of the public.

Section 64: Assessment of Doses to a Member of the Public

187. The authorized person shall ensure that arrangements are made for the assessment of doses to the member of the public to the extent necessary for verifying and demonstrating compliance with the authorization conditions.

188. The assessment of doses to members of the public shall be based on the proven identification of the representative person and the estimation of exposure doses due to external radiation and the intake of radionuclides.

189. The authorized person shall verify the adequacy of the assumptions made for the assessment of public exposure and radiological environmental impacts.

190. The authorized person shall maintain appropriate records of the assessed doses to members of the public.

Section 65: Monitoring Programs

191. The authorized person shall establish and implement monitoring programs to ensure that the ex-posure of the representative person due to radiation sources under their responsibility and the radioactive contamination of the environment is adequately assessed.

192. The monitoring programs shall include monitoring of the following:

(a) External exposure due to radiation sources;

(b) Discharges;

(c) Radioactivity in the environment;

(d) Other parameters important for the assessment of public exposure.

193. The authorized person shall ensure that the monitoring program is reviewed and updated when changes in the source, the environment or along the exposure pathways are jeopardizing the ca-pacity of the program to assess the public exposure.

194. The authorized person shall establish and maintain a capability to conduct monitoring in an emergency in the event of unexpected increases in radiation levels or in concentrations of radio-nuclides in the environment due to a radiation safety event. 

195. The authorized person shall maintain appropriate records of the results from the monitoring pro-grams.

Section 66: Reporting and Publishing of Monitoring Results  

196. The authorized person shall report or make available to the NRRC the results of the monitoring programs referred to in Section 65 at approved intervals. The reporting shall include, as applica-ble, the levels and composition of discharges, dose rates at the site boundary and in premises open to members of the public, results of environmental monitoring and retrospective assess-ments of doses to the representative person.

197. The authorized person shall report promptly to the NRRC, in accordance with reporting criteria established by the NRRC: 

(a) Any levels exceeding the operational limits and conditions relating to public exposure, in-cluding authorized limits on discharges;

(b) Any significant increase in dose rate or concentrations of radionuclides in the environ-ment that could be attributed to the practice. 

198. The authorized person shall publish or make available results from monitoring programs and as-sessments of doses from public exposure.

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